The first thing to do for a profitable production in poultry businesses is to prevent the emergence of diseases and to minimize their spread.
Necessary biosecurity measures should be taken to protect herd health. Biosecurity; with infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and parasites that threaten poultry health; It refers to all measures taken to prevent the entry of vectors (personnel, equipment, contaminated feed, wild animals, insects and rodents) that play a role in the transmission of these diseases.
In short, it is to keep the birds healthy with the measures taken. Bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi and many similar microorganisms cause serious health problems in poultry flocks. Within a business; Uncontrolled movements of poultry personnel, vehicles and equipment, contact with neighboring businesses, bringing sick or unhealthy birds to farms, using feed and water contaminated with the disease agent, or insufficient disinfection of tools, equipment, tools and equipment used in poultry houses, disease agents can easily be transmitted to poultry houses for many reasons.Also; Wild birds, flies, red chicken lice, insects and rodents play a very important role in the transmission and spread of diseases. Most of the diseases that are problematic in poultry are viral in origin and contagious and their treatment is not possible. Although bacterial diseases can be treated with antibiotics, it is not possible to completely eliminate the disease agent in some cases, such as Salmonella infections. Biosecurity programs are based on two pillars.
1- Keeping the infection outside of the coop
2- Circle the infection, preventing it from spreading
What are the biosecurity measures?
1- The location should be chosen appropriately while establishing the business. For the establishment of the coop, the lands that do not have any animal husbandry businesses in the vicinity and suitable for healthy breeding should be selected. The buildings should be in the direction of the prevailing winds and not directly exposed to the air from the exhaust fans of the nearby farms. Poultry houses should be built in a way that will meet all needs of the animals and allow necessary applications for biosecurity.
2- Entries to the business should be limited. Entries and exits into the business should be controlled by the business manager. Visitors who have been in other poultry farms in the last 24 hours should not be accepted into the establishment. Visitor records, name, date and duration of visit should be recorded. Visitors should be ensured to wear clean clothes and boots at the establishment. Visitors should definitely use disinfectant hand and foot baths.
3- Vehicle traffic must be kept under control. Entry of different vehicles to the business should be restricted. Disinfectant water spray stations should be established at the entry and exit points for all vehicles entering the business and the vehicles should be washed.
4- Diseases should not be carried over to the business. Microbes; They can be easily transported with vehicle wheels, cages and equipment. To keep them out of the coops; · Chicks to be purchased for the farm must be selected from certified breeding farms. ·In the case of purchasing pullets; Pullets must be tested absolutely for Salmonella, Mycoplasma, Newcastle and Avian Influenza before being brought.
Business workers must change their clothes and wear clean clothes before returning to work, as there is a risk of transmitting germs when they go to areas where other poultry and feed stores are located.
To prevent the transmission of diseases, poultry of different age groups and species or from different sources should not be kept together.
5- Make sure that all employees follow good sanitation measures. The facility should preferably have hand washing units in poultry houses. Special working clothes and boots should always be worn at the establishment. Hats should never be worn in the establishment, only hats belonging to the poultry house should be used when necessary. Separate shoes or boots should be worn inside and outside the poultry house. Disinfectant foot baths should be cleaned daily and filled with fresh, wide-acting disinfectant water.
Foot baths are only effective when used correctly. All equipment should be cleaned and disinfected regularly. Tools and equipment that have not been cleaned and disinfected should not be used between the poultry houses. In business; An effective control and control program should be implemented for flies, red chicken lice, insects, wild birds and rodents. An area 1-3 meters wide of concrete or gravel should be built around the house to prevent rodents from entering. Roads should always be kept clean. All business and work areas should be reviewed regularly. Persons engaged in poultry farming or working in enterprises should never feed poultry such as ornamental birds, village chickens or fighting roosters.
6- Visits of business employees to other establishments or places related to poultry should be restricted. With hands, hair, clothing, the disease can be transmitted from one poultry house to another. All personnel working in the establishment should stay away from people working with chickens or other poultry species. The materials used in the business should not be shared. If shared; It must be disinfected before taking back into operation. Disinfectant foot baths should be used while entering and exiting poultry houses.
7- Dead animals should be disposed of within the framework of biosafety rules, in accordance with environmental rules.
8- Removal of Litter / Fertilizer from the poultry house and incineration should be done under appropriate conditions. After the house is emptied, all Litter / Fertilizer must be removed from the house. The trailers should be placed in the poultry house before they are filled with litter / Fertilizer Loaded trailers must be completely covered before moving to prevent litter / Fertilizer and dust from spreading around. The tires of the vehicles must be brushed and disinfected before leaving the business. Litter / Fertilizer should be transported at least 1.5 km away from poultry houses and in accordance with the law and must be destroyed in one of the appropriate ways.
9- Flocks with suspected disease or problems should be identified and reported to the authorities.
10- After the poultry house is emptied, cleaning and disinfection is completed, the walls, ceiling and cracks of the poultry house should be sprayed with a sprayer. There should be no material or waste piles that could be a home for rodents, and weeds around the building should be cleaned or cut. Poultry houses should be cleaned and disinfected regularly. Coarse dirt and cobwebs should be swept away. All surfaces should be thoroughly brushed with a cleaning agent. Detergent and organic material should be thoroughly rinsed away. After the Poultry House is heated and closed completely; disinfection should be done. Disinfectant should be applied twice, depending on the situation; After the first application, the surfaces should be allowed to dry completely and then the second application should be done. A suitable disinfectant; It should be a disinfectant with economic, broad spectrum antimicrobial effect, no negative effects on human and animal health, odorless, fast-acting, non-corrosive, easily soluble in water, capable of penetrating into cracks and gaps, and with detergent properties.
11- Before and after the cleaning and disinfection application, bacteria measurements should be made in the environment.
12- Continuous training on biosecurity should be organized for enterprise employees.
13- The Biosafety plan prepared in accordance with the characteristics of the business should be hung in a place where the owner and staff can see it at any time.
14- Health status of herds should be monitored continuously. Vaccination and vaccination programs should be selected correctly in line with the needs, it should be used properly and the vaccination program of the flock should be determined.
In poultry, another way to prevent disease is vaccination. Vaccination program and application methods vary according to the environment and poultry house conditions. Therefore, the veterinarian in the region should be consulted and this program should be followed carefully. Success in controlling diseases with vaccines depends on some basic factors. These;
+ Vaccines should be purchased from reliable companies, their manufacturing date and expiry date should be determined.
+ Vaccines should be protected from heat and sunlight and kept in the refrigerator.
+ Vaccines should be applied absolutely to healthy flocks and at appropriate ages.
+ Vaccine applications and control test results must be absolutely recorded.
+ People who administer the vaccine should be knowledgeable and experienced in this regard.
+ Vaccinations should be done during the cool hours of the day.
+ Care should be taken that all animals receive the recommended dose of vaccine.
+ If vaccines are administered by adding to drinking water; Drinking water should not contain chlorine and disinfectant substances.
+ Since many vaccines consist of attenuated disease factors; Vaccine bottles should be destroyed after the vaccination process is over.
MAIN VACCINE APPLICATION METHODS
VACCINATION WITH DRINKING WATER
It is easy to apply, economical and crowded flocks can be vaccinated in a short time. Vaccine reactions are hardly ever seen. However, compared to other methods, its power to create immunity is low. Plastic material should be used while the vaccine is being prepared and distributed. Animals should be left without water for 1.5 to 2 hours before being vaccinated. The drinking water to be mixed with the vaccine should be in the amount that the animals can consume within 2 hours at the most. In order to protect the viability of the vaccine virus, 2 g / lt skimmed milk powder should be added to the water.
ANIMAL'S AGE, QUANTITY (1000 pieces), REQUIRED AMOUNT OF WATER
10-14 day 10 lt
2-4 weeks 15-20 lt
5-10 weeks 25-30 lt
10 weeks after 40 lt
EYE - NOSE DROP It is usually applied to chicks up to 30 days old. The vaccine is diluted with a special diluent and dropped with its original dropper into the eye or nose in vertical position. It should be noted that the vaccine is absorbed by the animal. With this method, a highly effective immunity is provided. In this type of vaccination, the vaccine virus can spread in the upper respiratory tract as well as spread to the body and creates immunity by stimulating the immune system. This method gives good results when applied carefully and meticulously. However, a lot of time and labor is required. The capture and handling of animals requires care.
The eye is a variation of the nose drop method. It can be applied to chicks up to 3 weeks old. One thousand doses of vaccine; Dissolve in 150 - 200 ml of clean, drug-free, disinfectant-free, chlorine-free fresh water. The mixture is placed in a plastic, porcelain or glass container at the appropriate depth. The animal's beak and nostrils (except eye) are dipped into the vaccine mixture. The vaccine mixture should be added as it decreases. The mixture should be protected from sunlight. Contamination is always possible with this method. Therefore, the vaccine should be administered carefully and quickly.
This method is used in live vaccines. It is possible to vaccinate crowded herds and businesses in a very short time. But, vaccination by non-experts will do more harm than good. In the spray method; Young animals should be sprayed with large drops and older animals should be sprayed with small drops. While spraying, the fans should be turned off and the vaccinating person should wear a mask. This application is mainly intended to create immunity in the respiratory system of animals. Although fine particles reach the lungs, coarse particles remain in the upper respiratory tract mucosa and create immunity there. The disadvantage of this method is that it is not sure that all animals receive the appropriate dose of vaccine. Therefore, antibody titers can be found in a very different range. It is beneficial to control antibody titres in blood to be taken 15-20 days after vaccination. Again, seeing vaccine reactions after vaccination is one of the possible consequences.
With this method, live vaccines can be used as well as inactive dead vaccines. It is the most guaranteed and best result of vaccination methods. However, it should be taken into consideration and should not be forgotten that the stresses that may arise from catching and handling animals one by one, the requirements in terms of time and labor, and that many losses and adverse vaccination reactions can occur if not careful. Injections can be made intramuscularly and subcutaneously. Since a certain amount of vaccine material is given to each animal, a uniform and high antibody titer is obtained.Again, attention should be paid to the sterilization of the equipment used.
DIPPING INTO THE WING MEMBRANE
In this method, the area of the wing that is poor in veins and nerves is applied to the wing membrane by dipping the vaccine with a slotted needle. It is necessary to stretch the wing thoroughly, to see the area where the needle will be inserted and not to be inserted into the veins. Animals should be checked 7-10 days after vaccination. Inflammatory reactions in the skin indicate that the vaccine is holding. It is a method that has been applied for many years especially against winged flowers.
RECOMMENDED VACCINE PROGRAM
1. DAY Marek subcutaneous / intramuscular injection
3. DAY Newcastle Spray, beak dip or eye nose drops
7. DAY Newcastle (inactive) subcutaneous injection
14.DAY Newcastle + Infectious Bronchitis Drinking water
18.DAY Gumboro Drinking water
28.DAY Gumboro Drinking water
45.DAY Newcastle Drinking water
70.DAY Newcastle+Infectious Bronchitis Drinking water
84.DAY Çiçek Kanat zarı
112.DAY Newcastle+Infectious Bronchitis+EDS Intramuscular injection
SOME IMPORTANT DISEASES THAT CAN CAUSE PROBLEMS IN POULTRY BUSINESS
Avian influenza (Chicken fever, Bird flu)
Avian influenza; caused by influenza A group viruses; It is an acute contagious disease with symptoms of respiratory and nervous system disorders in poultry with high morbidity and mortality. Avian influenza; It is a virus from the ortomyxoviridae family, with RNA genetic material belonging to the influenza group. All highly pathogenic epidemics are caused by the H5 and H7 serotypes of the influenza A virus.
Note: The vaccine program given above has been prepared in accordance with the vaccine program applied to breeders raised by Ankara Poultry Research Station. Consult a veterinarian who knows your area for your own vaccination schedule.
"H5N1, subtype of avian influenza"; It is seen more seriously due to its ability to mutate rapidly and consequently to become infectious for other species. Your virus; It is stated that it is susceptible to formalin and iodine compounds that it dies in 3 hours at 56 ° C or in 30 minutes at 60 ° C. In addition, the virus can survive at low temperatures for at least 3 months in contaminated manure, while in water at 22 ° C for 4 days, 0 ° It should also be known that it can survive for 30 days in C. Infection; The natural custodians of the disease are migratory water birds. The custodians of the virus are resistant to infection; However, other birds are susceptible. Among domestic poultry, chickens and turkeys are highly susceptible to the disease; in these animals, it occurs in the form of epidemics with rapid fatality. The transmission of the virus by air is limited to a few kilometers. Also; The disease can be transmitted mechanically from infected animals to susceptible animals through insects, bloodsucking flies and rodents. The disease is usually transmitted horizontally. There is no conclusive evidence of vertical transmission (vertical transmission, chicken-to-egg transmission to chick). Influenza A can easily be transported between farms, with tools, food, cages, clothing or other equipment.
Cough, wheezing and excessive tear discharge, edema and bruising in comb and beard, bleeding; redness, bleeding and swelling in the eyes; loss of appetite; watery diarrhea; nervous symptoms; defects in feathers, breaks, conglomeration in animals, dark red skin, bleeding between the fingers, blood coming from the back of the animal, stagnation, inactivity and reduction in feed consumption.
Fast and reliable test methods are available for the diagnosis of influenza. Also in our country; Both veterinary research institutes, Refik Saydam Hygiene Center Presidency Laboratories and laboratories belonging to some medical faculties have infrastructures that can carry out the necessary studies when necessary. Protection and Control; In case the disease is detected in poultry, necessary precautions should be taken by the authorized institutions and organizations and practices such as quarantine, culling and disinfection should be fulfilled completely in accordance with the relevant legislation.
In our country, services in this field are provided by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock. The disease is included in the list of "notifiable diseases". In animals; Matters regarding the fight against the disease in question and the measures to be taken; It is regulated by the Regulation on Protection and Control against Chicken Plague (Avian influenza) published by Veterinary Services, Plant Health, Food and Feed Law No. 5996. In the instruction sheet; From information about the disease to diagnostic methods, from the way of sending samples to prevention and control measures, all information has been covered extensively.
It is a contagious viral disease of chickens. Disease agent; It is a virus that carries genetic material of DNA character from the Poxviridae family.
Smallpox viruses; It enters through lesions on the skin of animals in the hairless parts. In addition to being contaminated by this type of direct contact; stinging insects also play an active role in the transmission and spread of the disease. Wound in lesions; The virus is abundant in their crusts and skin rashes and spreads around. Illness; It is more common and fatal among young people.
There are two main forms of the disease. Both skin and diphtheria form of the flower are frequently encountered in crowded, dirty, humid environments and especially in winter months. Under such conditions, deaths can reach 40-50%.
Skin form (Smallpox formu): This form; Rather, it starts as small rashes and blisters on the hairless parts of the animals (face, eyes, around the mouth, beard, comb, hairless skin) and develops as crusted lesions. Lesions on the beak edge; Since it prevents the opening of the mouth, it creates feeding difficulties. It can cause blindness in those near the eye. Small lesions that enlarge by merging become crusted when they mature. They can bleed when lifted with pliers.
Diphtheria form: This shape of the flower appears in the form of yellow-gray bubbles and shells; It is mostly seen in the mouth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus and larynx.In extremely advanced cases; It can cause death by making breathing difficult. Apart from these two forms; some cases also occur as swelling in the sinuses (rhinitis form). The face of the animal swells and discharge comes from the nose. Hidden infections can also be found in some animals. Smallpox; It causes weakening and low productivity in chickens.
A sufficient number of sick animals are sent to the laboratory for diagnosis. In embryonated eggs from materials taken from the lesions; As well as virus isolation, inclusion body can be searched in epithelial cells by staining. Also; Trial inoculation can be done by applying infected material to the beard or comb of young animals.
Chicken pox; Since it is a viral infection, it is not possible to treat it with antibiotics and chemotherapeutics. But; Protection of the lesions from secondary infections should be considered. Before the skin of the lesions bleeds; Glycerin iodine can be applied to their places by lifting with a sterile forceps. A similar application can be made for lesions in the mouth.
Protective measures should be observed; animals should be prevented from injuring each other. Vaccines; It is applied to 8-14 week old animals by pricking the wing membrane with a slotted needle. Immunity continues for a long time (life-long).
MYCOPLASMOZİS ( CRD - CHRONIC RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION )
Especially in young animals; It is a bacterial disease affecting the upper respiratory tract. Disease agent; are species in the genus mycoplasma. (M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. iowae )
It is rarely encountered as a primary infection. It usually coincides with infections such as newcastle, infectious laryngotrachitis, pasteurollazis, coli. Although animals of all ages are susceptible, generally developmental animals are more affected. There is vertical contamination in the disease. In addition, horizontal transmission, indirect transmission, mechanical transmission, entry of infected animals into the herd are effective factors in the transmission and spread of the disease.
Initially watery, later mucoid eye and nasal discharge. It is a disease with low mortality and high morbidity with symptoms such as stagnation, congestion, swelling of the face due to fluid in the sinuses, sinusitis, aerosacculitis (air sac inflammation). Although no symptoms were observed in mild cases; In severe cases, decrease in egg production draws attention. Animals that survive the disease remain porter. Although the death rate is low; It is necessary to remove all of them from the herd due to decreases in condition and yield.
Active; can only be produced on special media. Biochemical tests are used for identification.
It is one of the methods used in the diagnosis of the agent.
Antibiotics with known efficacy (tylosin, tetracycline, enrofoxacin, etc.) can be used by separating the sick animals with better conditions. However, certain success should not be expected. Antibiotic therapy can reduce the severity of lesions and clinical symptoms; however, it cannot eliminate the factors from the herd.
Although live-attenuated and dead vaccines have been developed for protection, their effectiveness is discussed. Taking general and special precautions and applying them sensitively is the most effective method of protection.
GUMBORO ( Infectious Bursal Disease )
Gumboro disease is a contagious viral infection of chickens (especially chicks and chickens). As it interferes with antibody synthesis, vaccination eventually negatively affects humoral immunity.
It is a virus that carries a double-stranded genome from naviruses (infectious bursal disease virus, IBDV).
Disease agent is resistant to natural and adverse conditions and some chemicals. Formol, chloramine and some iodine compounds are effective on the virus. In henhouse conditions; The virus can maintain its infective properties for a long time (up to 120 days). Such situations reveal that the virus will settle in the coops for a long time and may be a source of disease. The virus usually enters through the digestive system, causing disease. The virus can be spread through stools, food, water and other materials. It has a role in direct contact and other factors (caregivers, house material, etc.) in transmission.
B. disease causing Fabricius atrophy; It suppresses the immune system of animals in this way (immunosuppression). Among the main clinical symptoms; stagnation, lack of appetite, swelling of the feathers and getting mixed up, reluctance to move, thirst, depression, dehydration, weakening, after a white gray diarrhea, dirty of the posterior parts, pecking the back part, visible important of the symptoms. In young animals, the symptoms are less pronounced, but the immunosuppressive effect is more prominent. Deaths are mostly 2. -7. occurs in days (20-40%).
A sufficient number of sick animals (recently dead animals when necessary) are sent to the laboratories for diagnosis. In the diagnosis of infection; Isolation and identification of the virus, serological tests (ELISA, NT, AGPT, etc.) and, if necessary, experimental inoculations are performed.
Gumboro disease cannot be cured with antibiotics, chemotherapeutics or drugs.
Before brood chickens start laying eggs; they should be effectively vaccinated against Gumboro. For this purpose, intermediate strains are used. General hygiene measures should be taken and meticulously applied. In chicks purchased, the presence of maternal antibodies against Gumboro and the level of protection should be determined. Animals with maternal antibodies should be housed in poultry houses. If passive antibodies are not suitable, chicks should be vaccinated immediately.
NEW CASTLE DİSEASE (The lying Chicken Plague )
It is an acute and chronic, highly contagious and fatal viral infection of chickens and other poultry that causes disorders in the respiratory, digestive and nervous systems. The disease agent is located in the genus Avilavirus from the Paramyxoviridea family. The virus is divided into 3 groups according to its virulence: lentogenic (weak disease-causing capacity), mesogenic (moderately virulence) and velogenic (high virulence).
Due to its high morbidity, the virus; It spreads horizontally (directly or indirectly) between animals. The respiratory system constitutes the main entry route of the virus. However, to a lesser extent, it can enter through digestion, eye conjunctiva and injured skin. Mortality and morbidity may exceed 50%. It can be spread by nasal discharge, stool, tear discharge, sneezing material; It can also come out with the eggs of infected rootstocks and the sperm of roosters.
In respiratory system infections; Swelling of the sinuses, runny nose, sneezing, cough, wheezing are symptoms. In cases of nervous system origin; Torticollis, tics, paralysis of the legs and wings can be seen. Diarrhea draws the most attention in digestive system infections. Decreases in egg production of laying animals draw attention to the defects in the internal and external egg quality. The presence of asymptomatic cases is an important factor in the spread of the disease.
It is possible to diagnose the disease with clinical and necropsy findings, laboratory examinations and serological tests.
Sick animals are distinguished from those who seem healthy. Since there is no effective medicine for the disease, they cannot be treated. Prevention Maternal antibodies are of great importance in prevention. There are live - attenuated and dead vaccines used in practice. The disease is in the list of notifiable diseases.
They are infections caused by the genus Salmonella in the Eneterobacterecea family. Despite all biosecurity measures; it is still one of the most feared infections in poultry businesses. The main reasons for this are the intracellular character of the disease factor and the effective horizontal and vertical contamination. In addition, it has a special importance because the agent infects humans and causes enterotoxic disorders.
Disease agents usually enter the body through digestion, sometimes respiration and rarely through the skin. The disease is spread by stool nasal discharge, drooling and vertical infected eggs. Non-living materials such as underlay viols are also effective in spreading the agent. Rodents and wild animals are effective in the spread of the disease. Management mistakes, stress factors, adverse environmental conditions are factors that predispose to the emergence of the disease. Animals that do not have maternal antibodies are more susceptible to infection. Symptoms Infections caused by Salmonella agents can be divided into two categories.
1) Salmonellozis : Salmonella gallinarum – S. pullorum enfeksiyonları
2) Paratifo enfeksiyonları: S. enteridis, S. typhimirium enfeksiyonları
Pullorum Infection: Under-shell deaths are observed in infected eggs between 18 and 19 days. Those infected from hatched chicks also die within a few days. It spreads to the internal organs with the active blood circulation. Deaths; it usually starts on day 4; It peaks on the 5th day; continues to decrease on the 8th day. Stagnation, reduction in feed intake, white diarrhea; In lung infections, difficulty breathing is among the symptoms sometimes seen as swelling in joints and feet. Treatment can reduce the mortality rate to 5 - 15%.
Paratyphous Infection: There are not many symptoms in the disease. Deaths are usually stuck between 4-7 days. Poor in feathers and reduced feed intake are common symptoms.
Autopsy findings and laboratory examinations should be used for diagnosis.
After the sick animals are separated from the others, the drugs determined as a result of the antibiogram are used as specified in their package insert. Disease factors; They are sensitive to different degrees of antibiotics, disinfectants and sulfonamides. They can stay alive for a long time in outdoor environments. Protection; live 9 R vaccine or inactive vaccines can be used to trigger active immunity. Except this; Very strict general hygiene and protection measures should be put in place and these should be applied meticulously. The disease is in the list of notifiable diseases.
It is a tumoral, infectious, lethal, lymphoproliferative viral disease that develops as a result of the accumulation of mononuclear lymphocytes in various organs and tissues of chickens. The infection is usually immunosuppressive in young animals (immunsupresif). The disease of the agent is a virus belonging to the genus Herpetoviridae and having genetic material in DNA character.
The virus is not transmitted vertically to eggs. The virus reproduces in the nuclei of the cells and spreads along with the skin epithelial cells. The virus only survives when it is with the cell. (cell dependent virus). the dust in the air of feathers and poultry coops contains more viruses It is very important to infect the respiratory system. Infection can be easily spread to other poultry houses or businesses with dust from the ventilation. In particular, the virus, which is found in feathers and dust adhering to people entering the poultry house, has an important effect in spreading the disease. Therefore; As other creatures (rodents, birds, insects, etc.) entering the poultry houses are dangerous, the material also carries the same risk of contamination. Infected chickens that are purchased and put into coops without being checked are also dangerous in this respect. It plays a role in direct contact.
Although the disease can occur in animals of all ages, it is more common among young people (4-10 weeks of age). Infection; It shows two clinical forms, classical Marek's disease (mild Marek's disease) and Acute Marek's disease.
Classical Marek's disease: This form is generally seen among animals that are 10-15 weeks old. The disease is milder and longer, and deaths are relatively low. (%5-10). In patients; In addition to general symptoms such as stagnation, loss of appetite, weakening, pallor of the comb and beards, unilateral or bilateral paralysis is seen in the wings and legs. At the end of the paralysis, one of the legs is forward and one is back (typical ballerina sitting) and one or both of the wings can hang. Paralysis in the neck nerves also causes neck bends. Also; disorders(gray color, depigmentation) also occur in the eye (in iris). In this form, disorders can be come across in b.fabricius and thymus. Since these organs are among the "primary lymphoid organs", it creates an immunosuppressive effect in young people.
Acute Marek's disease: This form progresses faster and causes more deaths. Its clinical signs are similar to the classical form. At autopsy, lymphoid tumors of various sizes are encountered in the internal organs, depending on the severity and course of the infection. Rather, they are localized in tissues and organs of the ovary, spleen, liver, kidney, testicles, intestines, stomach bezel, muscles, skin, b.fabricius, heart, thymus, etc. The sciatic nerves themselves and the roots of the plexus brachialis are browned and thickened. Disorders (gray color and depigmentation) may also be encountered in the eyes.
Although it is possible to define the disease according to clinical and autopsy findings, it should be differentiated from similar diseases (Tuberculosis, Lymphoid leukosis, Gumboro, Aspergillosis). A sufficient number of sick (recently deceased if necessary) animals are sent to the laboratory for diagnosis. Serological reactions (FA, AGP, ELISA) are used in the diagnosis of the disease.
Marek Frosen Monovalent (FC-126) cell dependent live vaccine is administered to 1-2 day old chicks 0.2 mI muscle or subcutaneously. Marek Frosen Bivalent (FC-126 + SB-1) live vaccine cell dependent; 0.2 ml is applied to 1-2 day old chicks. These vaccines give immunity for a long time and animals carry the virus for life.