"WALKING CHICKEN EGGS" CHICKEN FARM PRODUCE
"NATURAL EGG" PRODUCTION
“In This Farm; free-range, grazing and fed natural food, away from stress; Healthy eggs with rich nutritious properties of happy chickens are produced.”
HOW OUR POULTRY CAGE SHOULD BE? WHAT SHOULD BE INSIDE AND OUT?
01. Open area for free-range chicken laying is 2 m2 per hen. It is 2000 m2 area for 1000 chickens.
02. Around the open area; 1.5 meters above the ground and 60-70 cm under the ground should be surrounded by wire mesh, so that the open area should be protected by closing unauthorized entry and exit. Animals such as weasels, foxes and martens should not enter the area by digging under the wire. Therefore, the wire should be buried 50-60 cm in the ground.
03. Shade tent areas made of knitted net (may be green) should be built in the garden for shade in summer. Or, shade trees should be planted.
04. Feed and water should not be placed in open-air walk areas in the garden. The reason for this is so as not to attract other creatures, birds and predators to the garden. These birds that may come from outside can also infect our chickens with disease. We must prevent this. We must prevent foreign birds and predators from coming. To ensure this; When we put 1 male 4-5 female goose in our chicken flock, if necessary, they will be a guardian for the whole flock; these geese do not let foreign birds of prey come close to our garden.
05. In the garden where our chickens are walking; We should make 5-10 mounds according to the size of the garden, which consists of a mixture of sand + ash + lime + parasite dust medicines. In this, our chickens dig. Especially when digging, it prevents the formation of lice when ash gets under the wings of chickens. Ash; It does not host lice and parasites on our chickens.
06. By dividing the garden, we should plant plants such as clover, oregano, thyme and parsley in each area and irrigate them to keep them alive and grow. Clover planted in the garden will grow every 18 days. Automatic irrigation sprinklers can be installed to water them.
07. Indoor henhouse area should be 1 m2 per 6-7 chickens. Indoor poultry area of 140-160 m2 is sufficient for 1000 chickens.
08. The henhouse should also be protected from creatures such as cats, mice, weasels, martens and foxes. The fans and windows of the henhouse must be covered with mosquito net so that such pests and birds do not enter.
09. Ferrets, martens and foxes want to enter the henhouse especially at night. To prevent this, when the henhouse doors are closed; it should not have any holes that could enter At night, the henhouse should be completely isolated from the outside. As the safety of our chickens is very important; when the doors are closed every evening; It should definitely be checked whether there is an entrance hole by going around the whole henhouse. To prevent foreign animals from approaching at night; 2-3 dogs can be fed depending on the outer perimeter of the henhouse.
10. In order to be a deterrent to those approaching the coop at night; We can install 50-100 watt led floodlights on the outer perimeter of the poultry house. Thus; lights up suddenly with bright light; it causes those approaching the house to flee at night time.
11. There should be slaked lime pools and disinfectant water at all entrances of the house, and it should be possible to enter the house by pressing here. Hands should be cleaned with liquid gel soap at the entrance and exit of the house.The same person must always enter the henhouse and the employee must wear at least 2 sets of boots and overalls, one inside the henhouse and the other outside the henhouse. He must go inside wearing these; When it comes out, it should take it out near the door Apart from slaked lime, a water basin with Zefiran can also be kept at the door for walking.
12. In large coops; inside poultry width should be at least 7 meters and medium height should be at least 3-3.5 meters. Small coops; 14-15m2 for every 100 chickens.
13. Lighting the House: 3 watts of daylight per m2 should be illuminated with a bulb. Since the coop will be 160 m2 for 1000 chickens; It would be good to illuminate it with 480 watt, ie 10 48 watt daylight bulbs. Do not use white light in coops.
14. Layer Pullets are very gentle. If it is stressed, sick, cold, immediately reduces the egg. For this reason, the henhouse should not be set up on a noisy roadside, even a soft slow music broadcast can be made into the house to get used to the sound. You should raise chickens of this breed as peaceful and prosperous as possible. Chicken creatures do not like changes in their life. You should keep their living spaces and care as stable as possible.
15. The most productive period of the pullets is 42-43 weeks. It starts to give guidance as of 18-19th week.
16. Generally, the average egg weight of chickens is 60-65 gr.
17. Egg; If it is 45-55gr, it is S, if it is between 55-63gr, it is M, if it is between 63-70gr it is L.
18. While Lohman Chicken gives 290-320 eggs a year, Ataks Chicken gives 250-280 eggs a year.
19. Especially if the Lohman race is well cared for, it is efficient between 90-96%. if it is below 60% efficient; It is not acceptable.
20. The happier the chickens in their habitat, the more productive they are. If you can achieve this, you can get 90% efficiency in summer and winter.
21. If the eggshell is hard, if the egg white is pasty and light yellow in color, if the egg yolk is also dark in color and consistency, the chicken is fed naturally. Conventional poultry egg shell is weak, flux is like water, transparent. The yellow is light yellow, always the same color.
22. Before setting up a coop, you should definitely create the egg market and determine where you will sell your eggs. When you start production; Eggs will be able to support your sales GEZEN CHICKEN EGGS TURKEY SALES platform, "producer member" if you are, do not forget that you can do much comfortable selling.
23. In poultry, the herd is not mixed with the herd. The herd enters as a whole, is disposed of as a whole. New chicken flocks cannot be added to the herd. Before the new flock arrives, the hen house should be disinfected with everything.
24. The floor of the henhouse should not be soil, but concrete or interlocking paving stones. The floor should always be dry. As the base floor; thick coarse pine shavings, husks or straw should be laid; thickness should be at least 8-10 cm in winter and 4-5 cm in summer. It is sufficient that the concrete thickness on the ground is 15-20 cm. Locked paving stones are sufficient in 6 cm.
25. For hygienic reasons, the inner walls and floor of the henhouse should be whitewashed with slaked lime.
26. The material we use as a poultry litter should be changed 1 or 2 times a month, depending on the temperature and humidity of the air. The litter should definitely not be wet or damp, and should always be dry. Otherwise, bacteria will produce germs. In front of the poultry door; Precautions should be taken to prevent muddy areas, especially in winter, and prevent them from pressing the mud and moving them to the coop. Concrete sloping towards the garden should be made to prevent water retention at the entrance of the henhouse.
27. Feeders in the henhouse should be 30-35 cm above the ground. It should not be poured on the ground while eating. Chickens should not eat from the ground. Otherwise, they will get sick.The neck should not be too bent to eat.
28. Feeders; If there will be a hanging feeder of 12 kg, one feeder should be dropped for 25-30 chickens.
29. Drinkers in the house should be 35-40 cm above the ground, and the nipple should reach the drinker head by extending the neck of the animal. Thus, spilling on the ground is prevented. The animal will not bow down when drinking water. Drinkers can be placed in the shade area in summer, although we do not recommend it much. These drinkers should have floats, not nipples, so that chickens can drink plenty of water. The water temperature they drink in the summer heat must be at 15-16 degrees, For this, ice molds can be placed in very hot weather.
30. Daily water consumption of chickens in the hen house is twice the average feed they eat.So if he eats 100 g of feed; It consumes 200 grams of water per day in winter and 300 grams in summer. The water tank; It should be inside the henhouse and at high altitudes to avoid being affected by heat and cold; If possible, it should be wrapped with insulation materials in order not to be affected by cold and heat. 2 water tanks should be placed in the henhouse. If we talk about 1000 chickens; The 1st large tank should be higher and should have a capacity of 500 liters, from here the water should enter the smaller 2nd warehouse, which is just below, and its capacity should be 100-150 liters. The small tank will be used as a measuring cup when spraying and vaccination will be made and when vinegar will be mixed into the water. So; It will be used for measurement purposes. The water from this small tank should also be distributed to the drinkers in the house. An arrangement should be established so that 1 nipple drinker head is per 5 chickens in the house. The temperature of the water that chickens drink should be 19-20 degrees in winter and 15-16 degrees in summer. If the water tank is outside; Not only can the temperature not be controlled, but also algae and then bacteria reproduction starts and turns green due to the sun rays. This is also an undesirable situation.
31. Into the water of the pullet every 15 days 1 liter of apple cider vinegar should be mixed with 10 liters of water and make them drink. It is for disinfection purposes. This mixed water; it pours the internal and external parasites of chickens. Apple cider vinegar; It is also of great importance in louse-flea defense.It gives health to the animal. Another way to achieve this is; 1-2 cloves of garlic are crushed into every 1 liter of water and kept in water for 1 day. The next day, after this mixture is filtered, it is mixed into their water (to the small tank) and given to the chickens, again, natural disinfection is provided. Onion juice does the same.It is antiseptic. It is made to protect animals against microbes. Another issue is; We have to throw ice molds in water tanks to cool the water on very hot days in summer.
32. If possible; The perches should be on the north wall of the henhouse, the nests should be on the south wall, the nest direction should point north. 1.5-2 m from the ground above the perches. the house should have light-receiving windows. If windows are to be built on both sides of the henhouse, they should not be reciprocal and should be positioned diagonally. This is because; When facing windows are made and these windows are opened; It makes air flow and chickens can get sick because they will stay in this air flow.
33. Poultry layout plan; Perches, feeders, drinkers, nests should be in order from one wall to the opposite wall.
34. Always mounted above the front and rear entrances in the henhouse; For a henhouse of 1000 chickens, 2 "VENTILATION FANS" of 50 cm diameter should be installed. By means of these fans, the airless environment created inside; It should be ensured that toxic gases such as carbon dioxide, ammonia and methane are discharged from the henhouse at regular intervals. Also, fan or swivel ventilation CHIMNEYs should be installed on the ceiling of the henhouse; Thus, it should be ensured that the dirty air, humidity and ammonia gas inside are constantly evacuated. The feature of these chimneys; it just throws out what's inside. It does not blow from outside to inside.
35. For the chickens not lay eggs on the ground; nests in the hen house should be positioned starting from 10 cm above the ground. It can be 2-3 rows in a row. It is important that the material is made of plastic or galvanized sheet metal, so that lice and fleas do not occur inside. Dimensions are; for each nest width 30 cm x height (depth) 40 cm x height 35 cm, and 1 nest should be arranged for every 6-7 chickens. The top nest should not be flat; Put a material that will slope towards to the henhouse; so the chicken should not stand on it. In order for chickens not to be gurk all nests must be covered. To prevent spawning in the henhouse corners, the nests should be placed in the henhouse in an "L" shape. Chickens usually lay eggs in nooks and corners. The area where the nests are located should be secluded, with little light, and should not see direct sunlight.
36. The advice given is: “In order to be ready before coming the yarka; Do not prepare and set up the nest immediately. Wait for the first egg. Whether there is a nest or not, they already lay eggs on the ground. Set up the nests after that. When the pullets arrive, they start perching in the nests and they make it a habit."
37. As for the perches; It should be thick and round enough for the chicken's feet to grasp, and it should be iron or aluminum. If it is wood, lice will breed on the roost. At least 25 cm long for each chicken; maximum 3-4 rows on top of each other and between each row should be 50-60 cm. They must be positioned so that they cannot contaminate each other. Perches should be on the inner north wall of the henhouse. If the side of the perches can be heated well in winter; if it gets hotter; by perching two or three to warm the nests at night; We prevent chickens from accumulating and polluting the chickens under them by dirty.
38. Positioning within the henhouse; nests should be on the south wall of the house; its direction must face north; must be covered; Sunlight should not be hitting the nests; There should be drinkers in front of the nests, then feeders and then perches. Sorting should be done in this way. Because; The chicken eats, drinks water and goes to spawn.
39. Ambient temperature of the henhouse; It should always be the same, between 18-24 degrees and the humidity should be between 55-60%. In order not to decrease egg productivity; henhouse temperature should never be lower than 15 degrees in winter. For this, a temperature and humidity measuring device should be placed inside the henhouse and ambient temperature and humidity should be monitored continuously from this device. In the winter months, if necessary, a stove should be installed in the coop and heated with a T pipe system.
40. Of chickens exit gates from the house to the garden should face west.These exit doors for chickens; should be small in size; It should be so narrow that animals such as dogs and pigs cannot enter from outside. This size can be 35 cm (height) x 40 cm (width). A henhouse of 1000 birds should have at least 5 of these exit holes. On the south side of the hen house; Windows should be placed at a height of at least 1.5 meters from the ground to allow light and sunlight to enter the henhouse. These windows should have double glazing. It can be opened from the outside or should be sliding to the side. It must be covered with fly screen (ingresses to inside). Neither bird nor flies should enter the henhouse from outside. Nests should be placed under these windows. The under construction; Windows should be positioned diagonally, not facing each other. Chicken exit holes (35cmx40cm) will be much better if they are hydraulic under the windows.
41. When the chickens are 16-17 weeks old, they should be at least 1200-1400 grams, they should be the 1st pure blood with a report and they should be fully vaccinated. (It should be learned from the company that named which vaccines were made when.)
42. The foot bones of the 17-18 week old pullet are fresh yellow. As we age, these foot bones become flaky white.
43. There should be no roosters in the pullet brought to the henhouse. İçinde horoz olan kümeslerden daha az sayıda yumurta alırsınız. Ayrıca Tavukların yumurtlaması için horoza da ihtiyacı yoktur. Horoz tavuklarınızı çiftleşme ısrarı yüzünden strese sokar, strese giren tavuk da az yumurtlar.
44. First arriving flock may shed 5-10% due to travel and deaths may occur. This rate is considered normal in the industry.
45. Once the flock enters the poultryhouse, the first 3 days the poultryhouse should be lit for 24 hours. After that;
1st.week: 14 hours light,10 hours dark,
2nd.week: 14,5 hours light, 9,5 hours dark,
3rd.week: 15 hours light, 9 hours dark,
4th.week: 15,5 hours light, 8,5 hours dark, and
From the 16th week: 16 hours light, 8 hours dark,
In the form of lighting should be done. The first chicken flock to arrive in the hen house; It should not be removed from the house until the egg yield reaches 80%. This is very important. If this is not done, pullets start eggs late. Another important subject; In order to prevent the chickens from piling up in the corners; we must put 19 liters of water demijohn in each corner. Thanks to this, you will prevent piling up in those corners. Collapsing in the corner cause deaths as a result of the crushing of those who are below.
46. Newcomers of 16-17 weeks of age should only be given the "Chicken Grower Feed" for the first 20 days. kılavuz yumurta yapmaya başlamasının ardından ikinci 20 günde Yumurta Yemi azar azar karıştırılarak Piliç Geliştirme Yemi + Yumurta Yemi birlikte verilmeli. Üçüncü 20 günde Piliç Geliştirme Yemi yavaş yavaş azaltılmalı, aynı ölçüde Yumurta Yemi artırılmalıdır. Ardından Piliç Geliştirme Yemi azaltılarak yemden çıkarılmalı ve tamamen Yumurta Yemine geçilmiş olmalıdır. Bu süreç yarka kümese girdiği günden itibaren 60 günde tamamlanmalıdır. Yumurta vermeye başlayan yarkalar vücut gelişimini mutlaka tamamlamış olmalıdır. Bu sonraki verimi için önemlidir. Hayvanın önce gelişmesi sonra yumurtlaması sağlanmalıdır. Kılavuzu görmeden Yumurta Yemi vermeyin. Ayrıca Yarkalarımıza 17-28. haftalar arasında “Peak Yemi” verirseniz yumurtaların boyu büyür. Normal yumurta yemine göre çuvalı 5-10 TL daha pahalıdır. İçindeki protein değeri 17’nin üstündedir. Bu yemden sonra yumurta yemine geçilse daha iyi olur. Tavuklarımıza vereceğimiz yemin protein değerine dikkat etmeliyiz. Protein değeri yüksek olan yemleri tercih etmeliyiz. Günde 2 defa yemlikler doldurularak, yemliklerin her zaman dolu olduğundan emin olmalıyız. Hayvan doyduğunda yem yemeyi bırakır, yemlikteki yemi bitirmek için uğraşmaz.
47. One of the different aspects of chickens from feeding other animals is:
▪ Feed is not given as meals, but kept in front of them continuously.
▪ The discharge of certain parts of the digestive system, especially the crop and gizzard, creates a feeling of hunger.
▪ This situation is repeated many times a day and chickens that feel hungry consume less but frequent feed.
▪ This is the reason why the feeders are always kept full in coops.
48. Chickens adjust their feed consumption according to their energy needs.
▪ While they consume less than high energy feeds, they meet their needs by consuming more than low energy feeds.
▪ Energy takes the first place in terms of total expenditure in the rations used today, followed by protein, minerals, vitamins and others.
49. When the poultry house temperature exceeds 30 degrees in broiler and chickens;
▪ 1- Respiration increases,
▪ 2- Blood vessels dilate,
▪ 3- The wings hang down
▪ 4- The need for energy increases,
▪ 5- Feed and energy consumption is reduced,
▪ 6- Growth rate decreases, egg yield decreases.
50. Stomach stones (GRIT): It is very necessary for digestion for chicken. Non-melting flint and granite helps maximize the utilization of the feed consumed.
▪ Although it is not suitable to give soluble minerals such as calcium containing mosaic stone and marble powder as grit, they are widely used because they are a good source of Ca on the one hand and can be obtained abundantly and cheaply on the other hand.
▪ Giving granite stones as grit (coarse grained from sand) causes an increase of up to 50% in the stony capacity. In this Grit feeding, the daily requirement per chicken is 2.5 - 3 gr. It should never be given alone, it should be mixed with their feed.
51. Feeding is 3 periods in the laying hen. The first period is the time until 18-42. The feed given at this time should contain 19-20% protein and 2600-2700 calories of energy. The second term is between 42-65 weeks. The feed fed during this period should contain 18-18.5% protein and 2500-2600 calories of energy. The third term is between 65-85 weeks. It is sufficient that the protein amount in the feeds in this period is around 17%. Barley is never given alone. If given, it dilutes the egg white. This is also an undesirable situation. If the amount of wheat and barley you give your chickens outside of the coop is higher than the ready-made feed you give in the feeders in the coop, laying hens enter the moult. This is undesirable. In moulting, the animal reduces / cuts the egg. Some chickens that go under the moult cannot survive this period and they die. Therefore, it is inconvenient to develop chicks or to give more barley, wheat, corn, oats than egg feed. These feeds prevent the chicken from laying eggs and make them fat.
52. One of the methods to contribute to the development of pullets and increase their productivity is to boil the bone broth and cool it, then chop stale bread into it and feed it to the chickens. It is necessary to do this in the area where they walk in the garden. Never feed in the poultry house.
53. Take carrots, parsley, tomatoes, scallions, fresh garlic in the food processor; we can feed them in the garden.
54. Hens that eat protein, live food, pulp lay eggs. Corn, millet and wheat, prevents chicken from laying eggs. These make the chicken fat. It can be given outside the poultry house without exaggeration.
55. Turmeric, marigold and chili peppers can be added to chicken feed. It gives more beautiful color to the egg shell and its contents. Chili pepper warms the chicken at the same time in winter. It can be given to 50 kg food (if it is hot) by mixing 2 glasses of chili pepper.
56. Egg shells and inside of chickens fed with granular feed (corn, wheat, barley, oat millet, etc.) are lighter, the egg whites are more fluid. This is also not a desired situation. These baits prevent spawning, makes the animal fat.
57. Chickens eat more feed in winter; For this reason, we should increase the feed 10-15 grams per chicken in winter.
58. Lohman Brown pullets lay their first small eggs, called guides, at 18-19 weeks. The fertile period of these well-kept chickens continues until they are 90-100 weeks old. Then its yield drops rapidly. Then it is necessary to dispose whole of the herd by send to the interrupt.
59. Until the poultry flock reaches 80% efficiency, it is not removed from the poultry house. During this time, they get used to laying eggs and nests.
60. Chickens lay eggs between 06-11 in the morning. So; They should stay in the coop until 11 o'clock at noon, then be taken to the garden, and they can stay outside until dusk. When the chickens go outside; Eggs should be collected immediately from the nests. Just before dusk, nests should be rechecked. All eggs collected; It should be placed in viols in the storage area and packaged without delay, and made ready for sale. Without waiting in stock, they should take their places in the sales aisles as soon as possible.
61. Egg viols are used once. The same viol should never be used a second time. Egg storage; should be cool and slightly humid environments.
62. We must install traps for mice and rodents in the storage area where we store feed and eggs, in order to prevent the formation of ants and cockroaches, we should regularly spray them with odorless spray drugs.
63. The vehicle should be able to enter the stock warehouse with reverse gear, the reason is that in rainy weather in winter, the egg trays should be loaded onto the vehicle without getting wet. The egg stock area entry should also be close to the road.
64. We should have another small poultry house in an area away from the polutry house; this is called the quarantine cluster. Separate the animals we suspect to be sick from the herd; We have to take it in this little house, observe it, treat it here as needed, and include it in the flock when it heals.
65. We can put daily liquid vitamins and minerals in the water of our chickens from 22-23 weeks. We must keep the immune system of our pullets strong. Do not use vitamins according to your mind. The veterinarian should definitely be consulted.
66. "Silver water" also strengthens the immune system. But no metal should touch it. It should be used without touching any metal. It is especially good for respiratory diseases.
67. What we need to pay attention to is to constantly observe the chickens and share any abnormal movements with the company. The main abnormal symptoms are; Chickens with swollen feathers or breasts, runny noses, closed eyes, a sneezing ticking sound inside, those who do not eat, move slowly and slowly or do not move at all. Besides of this; it could be limping chickens, chickens with warts. When we see these symptoms, we should immediately contact the company and the veterinarian.
68. Touch your chickens as needed; When you constantly grab them and hold them, you carry the pathogens in them to your other chickens. Do not touch or hold them unnecessarily. Do not let anyone except the keeper of the hen house. Remember that different people entering and leaving the coop unprotected can be a disease carrier for your chickens.
69. We must do 1000 newcastle Plague and Bronchitis vaccines every 45-50 days to be given by placing in water tanks. This 1000 cc live vaccine is for 1000 pullets. Don't do it all! How many chickens you have in the poultry house; you have to apply that much cc. That is, if there is 250 pullets, 250 cc. you will use. Do not keep the rest. Properly; bury and destroy. This is a live vaccine. Never use over and over again.
70. If the chicken has green diarrhea, it means it has false plague. The salep root that the chicken eats cuts the diarrhea.
71. Also; From time to time, when the oil of cantoron is mixed with the water they drink or the food they eat, we provide the chickens to lay eggs more easily. This oil also has therapeutic properties in that area.
72. Before entering the hen house and after leaving, we should definitely cleanse our hands with liquid gel hand disinfectants.
73. We should have a separate small care house where we can look after and observe by isolating the animals that show signs of illness and therefore we suspect to be sick. We should apply therapeutic methods to the animals we observe in this area. They should not interfere with the herd.
74. In the most remote area of the garden, there should be a "dead pit". We have to "cull" sick chickens here and cover them with lime. And this area must be well isolated from outdoor animals. We must take measures to prevent animals such as cats, dogs and foxes from digging up and finding them.
75. After the flock leaves the poultry house, the period of disinfection, repair and maintenance begins. The house is undergoing a complete overhaul, equipment is repaired. The entire poultry house material is taken out; It is washed with pressurized water mixed with apple cider vinegar. The inner walls and base of the Poultry House; whitewash is done again with lime; the inside is also washed; windows and doors are left open to dry. Materials removed after completely drying; It is taken in and installed in their places. Next; the entire poultry house must be completely disinfected by FUMIGATION. New herd; only after these procedures should be taken to the poultry house.